Terms Dictionary

Styles, schools, groups
Applied art and jewelry

aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique, as well as a print produced using this technique. In aquatint, a copper or zinc plate is coated with powdered resin or asphalt. Next, the powder on the plate is fused in a small furnace. This achieves the effect of bright dots on a dark background. To obtain a negative effect, salt should be added before heating. There are three ways of making aquatint: 1. state etching, (consecutive covering of the plate with varnish); 2. direct etching with an acid solution with the use of a brush on the plate; 3. toning of oxidizing pastes on a non-dusted plate surface. Aquatint was popularized in the 18th century. It is similar to etching, but aquatint uses lines, while aquatint uses dots and planes, giving it a more painterly expression. Aquatint was practiced by artists like F. Goya.

service offering professional advice on the purchase of artwork (also of those not included in the offer of DESA Unicum). It is the perfect solution for those who are unsure of what to buy or how much something is worth. The consultant assists the client in selecting from a variety of auction, gallery, and antiquarian items that will meet their aesthetic and investment expectations.

the term used in DESA Unicum's mobile app during the auction. It denotes the last opportunity to raise the bid before the last hammer fall, signaling the end of the bidding.

an organized public sale of items in which the buyer is the bidder with the highest price. The works of art or collectors' objects that can be viewed in advance at the pre-auction exhibition are the objects of purchase at the auction. The auctioneer presides over the auction, being responsible for ensuring adherence to the provided sales regulations. The auction is held in Polish; however, some auctions may also be held concurrently in English and German at the participant's express request. You are not required to make a deposit in order to take part in the auction. The majority of Poland's auctions, over 200, are organized by DESA Unicum. Among them are works by old masters; contemporary art; young art; and thematic art (such as works on paper, designs, photographs, comic book boards and illustrations, jewelry, artistic graphics, and sculptures). DESA also conducts charity auctions, auctions of collections, and biddings requested by private parties.

a special identification code that is given to each auction in DESA Unicum. It allows you to distinguish between each auction. The auction code can be found on the online auction website as well as in each auction catalogue.

a fixed percentage that covers all of the services of the DESA Unicum auction house’s intermediary in the sale. The fee is added to the hammer price and constitutes the final lot price, amounting to 20%. In the event of a post-auction sale when the item has not been sold as part of the auction, the buyer’s premium shall also be applicable.

an exhibition held a few days before the auction, allowing viewing of all the objects put up for auction. The exhibition is free of charge and open to the public. We encourage you to speak with our experts during the visit, who will gladly respond to all inquiries and provide thorough information about specific items.

the legally binding price that a bidder offers for each item during the auction. The bidder signals it to the auctioneer by picking up the paddle.

the totals received from the sale of all items that were put up for auction, including the hammer price and the buyer’s premium. The results of the auctions are published immediately after each auction on the desa.pl website.

the person who presides over the auction. The auctioneer initiates the sale of a lot by stating the starting bid and deciding on the amount of the following increments. Once the first offer is made, others may offer higher bids. The auctioneer identifies the bidders, signals the end of the auction, and names the winning bidder. If a work sells, the auctioneer uses the hammer and announces, “sold” to close the bidding. The objects may be freely divided or combined by the auctioneer, who can also withdraw them from the auction without providing reasons. Prior to the start of the auction, the auctioneer or a person that the auctioneer designates may add to or modify the descriptions that appear in the auction catalogue.

a formal proposal made by the bidder during the auction to buy the item. The auctioneer's acceptance of the offer to purchase the item makes the offer legally binding.

it is DESA Unicum's auction platform that enables online participation in the auction. Clients can bid online on offered items in real time. You must register no later than 12 hours before the start of the auction in order to participate using bid.desa.pl. Once you have registered on the auction portal, please wait for information from one of our employees who, after checking the information, will decide whether or not to allow you to participate in the auction.

an individual or entity actively participating in the auction. The bidder can place a bid in person, over the phone, or online. The auction is won by the bidder who submitted the highest bid accepted by the auctioneer. The winning bidder is personally liable for paying the price of the purchased items.

a method used to sell the items. The bidding proceeds at a rate of 60-100 items per hour. Bidding is always done "upwards" through increment.

bidding through DESA Unicum's representative on the indicated item at a price specified by the client. The client specifies the maximum price he/she wants to pay for a specific item using the form available on the website, in the auction catalogues, or at our auction house's headquarters. Our representatives shall make every effort to ensure that the client pays the lowest possible price (but not less than the guaranteed price) for the item they have chosen. The transaction is conditional if the limit is lower than the guaranteed price. In the case where there are two or more commissions with the same limit, the order of the requests determines the outcome. This service is free of charge and confidential.

a plate displaying the number assigned to a bidder, which must be collected prior to the auction at the registration point. The person participating in the auction uses it to bid. The auctioneer reads the number on the paddle each time the price is raised and when the bidder wins the auction.

one of the characteristics that gives precious gemstones their value is brilliance – the phenomenon of light that makes the stone sparkle. The fascinating luster and shine are the result of the right cut of the gemstone. The entire effect works like a mirror: sunlight enters through the stone's surface, where it refracts, reflects, and scatters through the stone's shape. The better the shape matches the stone's proportions during the cut, the more brilliance can be brought out of the stone. Four types of brilliance are distinguished: internal – shine caused by light reflecting from the stone's surface, external – shine caused by light reflecting from the facets (angled edges) of the stone's base; scintillation – shimmering shine when the stone is rotated; dispersion – color play dependent on the size of facets and the angle of the crown.

an organized list of the items offered for sale at a particular auction. The catalogue includes accurate photos of the items and provides basic information about them, such as the name of the artist, the work's title, its creation date, its provenance, and the major exhibitions and publications where it has been displayed, as well as a precise description of each object. The catalogue is accessible in electronic format on the desa.pl website. The catalogue is also available in printed form for some auctions.

items presented in the auction catalogue. They include illustrations along with professional valuation and a reliable catalogue description based on experience as well as professional knowledge of our employees and the cooperating experts. The auctioneer or an authorized person may add to or change the descriptions in the auction catalogue before the start of the auction.

collage is a technique involving the assembly of different materials on a single plane. Initially, experiments involved attaching cut-out photographs, paper forms, or fabrics to canvases. Over time, various objects, sand, wood, or even mechanisms, were added or welded onto the image. The first collage works were created in 1912. Cubists like P. Picasso and G. Braque were precursors and authors of collages. They began incorporating fabric, paper, and sand into their works. Soon, collage gained popularity, and other artists also became interested in it. The further development of collage led to spatial solutions, known as assemblage – collages that extend into three dimensions.

comics are sequential illustrations with accompanying text, usually presenting a narrative. The popularity of comics dates back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries when comic strips were published in newspapers for comedic purposes. With increasing popularity, they were soon published in separate booklets. Pop-art popularized comics, especially superhero stories in the United States. In Poland, series like Koziołek Matołek and later Tytus, Romek, i Atomek by Henryk Jerzy Chmielewski gained success. Polish comic artists include Bogusław Polch, Janusz Christa, and Mieczysław Wiśniewski.

a document outlining the terms under which the consignor shall sell the item. It specifies the minimum sale price, the consignment fee, and the amount due to the owner. The contract must be signed for the item to be eligible for an auction with a predetermined minimum sale price. If the price originally stipulated in the agreement increases during the auction, the amount due to the consignor is proportionately higher.

see "conditional transaction". It is a contract for a conditional sale made either during an auction or a so-called non-auction sale.

a contract concluded in the event the item did not reach the guaranteed price. A conditional transaction is treated as a binding purchase of the item at the hammer price. We undertake to negotiate the price with the consignor, but we cannot promise that you will be able to buy the item at the hammer price. The sales agreement becomes effective if the client decides to raise the tender during negotiations to the level of the guaranteed price or if we accept the hammer price offered by the buyer. The item is regarded as unsold if the negotiations are not concluded within five working days of the auction date. During this time after the auction, we reserve the right to accept bids for conditionally sold items that amount to the guaranteed price. We inform the client who conditionally bought the item if another bidder makes such an offer. In this event, the client has the right to raise his offer to the guaranteed price and is given priority to buy the item. If not, the conditional transaction is void and the item may be sold to a different bidder.

a fee charged by DESA Unicum to the consignor for the sold item.

gemstones have been subjected to shaping for centuries – polished, smoothed, and formed. In jewelry, precious stones are subjected to shaping to give them a specific form and highlight their color and brilliance. All interventions related to this process are referred to as cuts. The cut is an assessment of the lapidary's skill and craftsmanship. Improper cut can significantly reduce the value of a gemstone. The correctness of a cut is evaluated based on the stone's proportions and the finish of the cut. In the market, there are stones that, after cutting, retain as much of the raw diamond's mass as possible at the expense of proper cut proportions. Appropriate proportions are needed to make the stone reflect light as best as possible, giving it a special brilliance, which is an additional advantage.

the right granted to artists and their heirs to receive a fee on the professional resale of the original works of art they own. The items subject to this right are additionally charged based on the rates provided in the DESA Unicum's Auction Sale Terms and Conditions. The items subject to the droit de suite is marked with the "clover" symbol in the catalogue.

école de paris, or the Paris School, refers to new artistic phenomena that emerged in Paris due to the influx of immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe at the beginning of the 20th century. Representatives of Ecole de Paris created diverse works. They weren't characterized by a single technique or shared themes. It was an integrated community that mutually inspired each other. Artists like Olga Boznańska, Mela Muter, Tamara Łempicka, Eugeniusz Zak, and Mojżesz Kisling were part of Ecole de Paris.

although auction transactions are completed in PLN, the auction catalogue estimates may be provided in EUR, GBP, or USD. They roughly represent the price for foreign clients at the current exchange rate. This information should only be used as a guide since the exchange rate on the day of the auction might vary from that on the day the catalogue was issued.

also called the estimated price. This is the estimated value that the item can reach at the auction. Estimates are based on the opinions of auction house experts on the basis of the item's state, uniqueness, quality, and provenance, as well as recent auction records of comparable pieces. The auction catalogue typically includes estimates for each item. The bidding ends when the price is within the estimate or above its high estimate. The estimate does not include the buyer’s premium or any additional fees.

etching is a technique of intaglio printing, as well as the print created with this method. In etching, a copper or zinc plate is coated with aquatint varnish (wax, asphalt, or resin). A sketch is then created on the spread varnish by scratching through it, exposing the plate. The plate is then etched in an aqueous solution of nitric acid or ferric chloride. The depth of the etched lines depends on the etching time; hence, artists may add lines gradually, from the darkest (longest-etched) to the finest (quickest-etched). It's also possible to create an entire drawing, and the unexposed parts are covered with varnish during etching. When etching is complete, the varnish is removed, and ink is applied to the heated plate which has to stay in the cuts. The plate is then pressed onto paper, creating the print. The beginnings of this technique date back to the early 16th century. Etching was practiced by artists like A. Dürer, Rembrandt, and F. Goya, as well as in Poland by J. Mehoffer and J. Pankiewicz.

a specialist in particular artistic disciplines, with extensive experience in confirming and verifying the authenticity of works of art.

a tool the auctioneer uses during the auction. When the hammer goes down, it signals that the auctioneer has accepted the highest offer for the item, concluding the sales contract between the buyer and DESA Unicum.

precious gemstones contain inclusions, internal characteristics, and blemishes – external marks. Both inclusions and blemishes result from the process of gem formation, making no two gemstones exactly alike. Gemstone clarity is evaluated based on these imperfections, both internal and external. The fewer the inclusions, the more valuable the gemstone. There are five primary clarity grades: (from most pure) LC – loupe clean, VVS – very, very slightly included, VS – very small inclusions, SI – slightly included, P – included. This means that a larger mass (carat) of a precious gemstone does not always indicate a higher price. Perfectly clean gemstones are rare, so stones from the SI clarity grade and higher are highly sought after.

it is the minimum price for which the item can be sold without consulting the consignor. The guaranteed price is set between the starting bid and the low estimate. The guaranteed price is confidential. Each item may, but does not have to, have a guaranteed price. If the bidding ends before the guaranteed price is reached, the end of the bidding shall result in a conditional transaction. It is announced when the auctioneer’s hammer falls.

the winning bid for a lot at an auction. Traditionally referred to as the "hammer price" due to the symbolic fall of the auctioneer’s hammer, determining the sale price and ending the bidding. The hammer price does not include the buyer's premium; therefore, it is not the real price (purchase price).

an icon is a sacred image depicting holy figures. It is often a painting on a wooden panel, but icons can also be created using mosaic or relief techniques. The tradition of icons originates from Byzantium. They are regarded by believers not merely as representations of saints, but as embodiments of their presence. Icons were created following strict guidelines on special wooden boards. The composition could not be determined by the artist alone; it had to adhere to principles established by the Church and tradition. Icon painting techniques evolved from late antique encaustic and tempera painting. The method of painting has remained unchanged for centuries. Those who create icons work exclusively with pure colors, each of which holds symbolic meaning, such as white, which symbolizes divinity and purity. Icons are painted planarly, and their illusionistic backgrounds are usually made of gold.

the amount by which the auctioneer increases the bidding. The auctioneer states the following increments in line with the increment table. The auctioneer may decide, at his or her discretion, on the amount of increment depending on the course of the auction.

an object offered for auction (by the consignor) in DESA Unicum. It may be a work of art or an object of a collector's value.

a unique number given to each DESA Unicum auction item.

jewelry is a goldsmith's and jewelry product that ornaments body. It is made from precious metals and gemstones, known for its artistry. People have always sought to surround themselves with beautiful objects. Jewelry has become a basic form of displaying social status. The value of jewelry comes from precious materials and metals it was made of, as well as the artistic skill in crafting refined shapes and compositions.

named after a German artist active at the beginning of the 20th century, has been given annually to artists residing and working in Berlin since 1960 for their overall artistic accomplishments. The Akademie der Künste and the Cologne Kreissparkasse jointly organize and sponsor the competition. Prizes include 12,000 euros and the opportunity for the winner to hold a monographic exhibition and publication of his/her works. Mona Hatoum and Adrian Piper are among the artists who have won the competition.

linocut is a traditional printmaking technique, specifically a relief printing method, used since the 19th century, as well as a print made with this technique. Linocut involves applying a sketch to a linoleum block, then carving it using sharp tools. The finished artwork is then inked and pressed onto paper using a printing press. Linocuts can be monochromatic or multicolored. Polish masters of linocut include J. Gielniak and S. Fijałkowski. Linocut is easier to execute than woodcut, as linoleum can be carved from any side, unlike woodcut where tools need to be directed into the wood grain. Notable artists who used linocut include H. Matisse and P. Picasso. Today, linocut is not the most popular technique due to the labor-intensive process and time required.

an award given yearly to artists residing in France by the ADIAF (Association pour la Diffusion Internationale de l'Art Français). The competition's winner receives a prize of 35,000 euros as well as up to 30,000 euros in funding to hold his/her exhibition at the Paris Center Georges Pompidou. Thomas Hirschhorn won the first prize in 2001, and Lili Reynaud-Dewar received it in 2021.

the term used to describe the item's objective, persisting market value as determined by the auction records.

modernism dates from the 1860s to the 1970s. It encompasses various artistic, architectural, and literary movements from that time. Modernist architecture breaks away from decorative forms in favor of functionality. Architects believed that beauty should serve practicality. Art, on the other hand, opposed realism. This is the era when Impressionism emerged. "Painters of light," influenced by precursor Edouard Manet, focused on tranquility, reflection, and the fleeting moment. In Poland, modernism is referred to as the art of the Young Poland movement or Secession. The slogan art for art's sake had a significant influence on Polish art. Works by artists like Jacek Malczewski carried profound symbolism. Art related to history, Polish villages, and landscapes also enjoyed great success. Artists like Jan Matejko, Leon Wyczółkowski, Wojciech and Jerzy Kossak, and Józef Pankiewicz tackled these themes.

the oil painting technique involves using oil-based paints, the binder of which is soluble in oil, typically linseed oil. The support for oil painting is usually canvas, wood, or metal, less commonly paper. It is a durable technique that allows for corrections and creating depth. There are two main methods of oil painting – layered, where an underpainting of fast-drying paints is applied on the mordant, followed by layers of paint, and alla prima, where layers of paint are applied directly onto the mordant. The first information about oil painting dates back to antiquity, but its popularity grew in the Netherlands in the 15th century. Italian masters, using water-based painting techniques, were fascinated by the illusionary power of Dutch oil paintings. After this event, oil painting became the most popular European painting technique.

you can also take part in any auction via the Internet. The DESA Unicum bidding platform (https://bid.desa.pl) is used for live online bidding. The platform also allows you to watch the live auction without registering.

op-art, or optical art, is a movement that influenced various fields like painting, printmaking, and fashion. It reached its peak popularity in the 1950s and 1960s. It focuses on visual and optical aspects. Various abstract geometric compositions are used in works to create a spatial illusion that plays with the viewer's perception. The interplay of color and shape creates optical illusions that give the impression of movement. Creating this type of art requires mathematical knowledge and a deep understanding of proportions. Hungarian artist Victor Vasarely is considered the founder of Op-art. In Poland, artists like Wojciech Fangor, Ryszard Winiarski, and Julian Stańczak also explored this direction. Spatial compositions were also created by Henryk Stażewski.

the term used to describe an item that did not sell at the auction. The auctioneer reads the pass during the auction of a particular item if it did not reach the guaranteed price and the sales contract has not been concluded as part of the auction.

direct and active participation in the auction held at DESA Unicum. Personal participation in the auction requires filling out the registration form and collecting your plate with the number. After the auction is over, return the number plate to the point of registration and, in case you made a purchase, collect the confirmation of concluding a transaction.

photography is a technique that captures a lasting image using light on light-sensitive material. The first photograph was created in 1827, sparking a trend that continues today. Photography serves various purposes, including documentation, scientific research, and art. This new medium fascinated artists, leading to fashion, avant-garde, and portrait photography. Playing with light and motion prompted artists to explore numerous possibilities that now seem inexhaustible. Desired photographs ranged from artistic ones to celebrity portraits and unusual situations. Artists in photography include Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, Natalia Lach-Lachowicz, Ewa Partum, and Piotr Uklański.

a plate is a vessel, utensil, or other object created through plating, which is one of the metallurgical techniques. Plating involves applying thin layers of different metals onto metal products. The origins of plating in Europe date back to the mid-18th century when the English craftsman Thomas Boulsover fused together a copper plate and a silver plate. As a result, the new product looked almost exactly like silver. In the 19th century, with technological advancements, the prices of plates decreased, making them accessible to all social classes. Warsaw was a prominent center of plating in Poland. Plates were marked with the signatures of companies and factories, usually inscribed within a circle or square. The information about the grams of silver used on a specific area of the item was indicated by a number; the larger the number, the higher the quality of the object.

the pivotal year 1989 brought fundamental changes to Poland's cultural policy. Full autonomy was achieved, but funding for artists was withdrawn. Despite state control and censorship, the communist state established artistic communities and commissioned well-paid projects. Polish art after 1989 didn't focus on political critique, although the atmosphere in the country was turbulent. The dominance of electronic media influenced art in the 1990s. Paintings ceased to arouse the great interest they had had until recently. Traditional cultural patterns were rejected, and interest shifted toward the body and corporeality, mind, sexuality, and destruction. Artists like Martyna Czech, Agata Kus, Jadwiga Sawicka, Agata Bogacka, and Zbigniew Rogalski emerged during this period.

the post-World War II avant-garde gave rise to new and fresh movements such as conceptual art, land art, and minimalism. Post-war artists, fueled by the desire for rebuilding and creating a new life, rejected the conventions of the past. They theorized about art and focused on using it as a tool for social progress. Art ceased to be created solely for aesthetic reasons but also for existential ones. Artists produced state-commissioned socialist realist works, but with the thaw of 1956 and partial creative liberalization, they began creating more intriguing pieces, satisfying their creative hunger. Notable artists from this period include Tadeusz Kantor, Erna Rosenstein, Andrzej Wróblewski, Roman Opałka, and Jan Dobkowski.

the right of registered museums to purchase monuments first directly at the auction, with the hammer price increased by the buyer’s premium.

printmaking refers to techniques that replicate patterns on paper, fabric, or other media. It can be utilitarian or artistic. Printmaking gained popularity with the invention of print in the early 15th century. Techniques include woodcuts, linocuts, etching, and etching. In Poland, artistic printmaking is mostly associated with the 20th century. Renowned Polish printmaking artists include Władysław Skoczylas and Stanisław Szukalski. Figures like Pablo Picasso, Leon Wyczółkowski, and Mojżesz Kisling also worked in printmaking.

information regarding the origins of the item or previous owners. This documentation helps to confirm the authorship of the work and determine its value.

also called the real price. It is the final price that is paid for the purchase by the buyer. It consists of the hammer price, buyer's premium, and additional fees that appear in the catalogue designation of the item.

an international German industrial and applied design competition organized by Red Dot GmbH & Co. KG. The prize has been awarded annually since 1955 in several categories, including product design, communication design, and design concepts. The winning items become part of the collection of the iconic museum – the Design Centre North-Rhine Westphalia in Essen. Among the several Polish winners throughout the years was Oskar Zięta and his Zieta Studio.

a form created by DESA Unicum that participants must fill out in order to take part in the auction.

also known as screen printing, serigraphy is a printing technique and the print created using this method. Serigraphy involves pushing ink through screens (open fabric mesh) onto paper. Mesh, usually fabric (or metal,) with a picture cut out, serves as the printing form. The fabric should be stretched and attached to a metal or wooden frame. Once the fabric is attached and paper or fabric is placed underneath, a thin, ink-like paint is applied (to prevent clogging the holes), poured onto the mesh, and spread using a squeegee onto the paper. Initially, screen printing was solely used for decorating fabrics. This technique came to Europe from Japan. Only in the early 20th century did it begin to be used for artistic purposes. By the mid-20th century, it had gained popularity in Europe.

silver fineness refers to the percentage of silver in a given item. Utility objects cannot be entirely made of silver because it is too soft, leading to rapid and easy deformation. The Polish Assay Office recognizes four silver fineness levels: 925 (92.5% pure silver), 875 (87.5% pure silver), 830 (83.0% pure silver), and 800 (80.0% pure silver). The fineness level of 925 is considered the best. In the fineness mark, in addition to the number indicating the percentage of noble metal content, there is a symbol in the form of a woman's head – indicating that the item is made of silver. A knight would indicate an item made of gold, a dog represents palladium items, and a horse represents platinum items. To the left of the head, there is a letter indicating a specific assay office, e.g., the letter A for Białystok, B for Bydgoszcz, G for Gdańsk, and so on.

a person with extensive knowledge of the art world and expert knowledge of the art market.

it is also known as the first increment. This is the price from which the auctioneer starts the bidding. The process of bidding is upward, so the final bid can be higher than or equal to the starting bid. The auctioneer decides on the starting bid.

the current condition of an item. The catalogue descriptions contain basic information about the object's condition, but they may fail to depict its complete state. The absence of this information does not imply that the item is free from defects and damage. It is therefore recommended that anyone interested in purchasing a specific item conduct a thorough inspection of the object at the pre-auction exhibition and seek advice from a qualified conservator, whom we can recommend upon express request. We can provide you with a thorough report on the status of the item's condition at the client's special request.

street art originated from illegal works on walls and buildings in public spaces. Basing on graffiti techniques born in New York in the late 1960s and 1970s, artists created spontaneous writings and drawings. In the 1980s, graffiti evolved with a different character and engagement. Growing competition led to the creation of more innovative solutions. Basquiat and Haring became pioneers of street art. The goal was to create art for the masses, allowing passersby who have no time to visit art galleries to take a moment on the street and contemplate it. Polish artists in this trend include Adam Jastrzębski, Robert Proch, and Daniel Kalinski.

placing a bid via telephone using one of DESA Unicum's representatives. Before a particular item's bidding process begins, the representative contacts the client and bids on the item on the client's behalf up to the specified amount. This service is free and confidential. The request must be submitted using the form available on the website and in the auction catalogue or at the DESA Unicum headquarters at least 24 hours prior to the start of the auction. If you wish to bid via the phone, please provide the DESA Unicum representative with both the phone number through which you can be reached during the auction and the lot number you wish to bid on.

awarded by the Tate Britain art museum since 1984. The competition is open to artists under the age of 50 who live permanently or were born in the United Kingdom. The artist's most recent successes are given more weight in the award than their overall body of work. The winner receives 25,000 pounds. In 2021, the artistic group Array Collective was declared the winner.

official evaluation and analysis of the item's value. It serves as the basis for calculating the estimated price. If the work is put up for auction in DESA Unicum, the Commission's valuation of the item is free of charge. Written valuations, which are offered as a service separate from commissioning us to sell your item, are determined individually.

the term used in DESA Unicum's mobile app during the auction. It indicates the auctioneer's first confirmation of the price and the approaching end of the auction. The warning gives a fair chance of winning the auction to all interested bidders, giving the last chance to increase the bid.r.

watercolor is one of the painting techniques. It uses water-based paint, meaning its binder is soluble in water. The surface for watercolor paint is usually paper or parchment. The development of watercolor dates back to the 18th and 19th centuries, and it arrived in Poland during the Enlightenment period. Watercolor is considered one of the most challenging painting techniques due to the difficulties in making corrections, as it relies on layering paint. The thicker the paint layer on the paper, the higher the risk of the paper being penetrated by water and brush friction. Watercolor paintings are not durable; they fade when exposed to sunlight. Watercolor was often used for sketches and plans.

the term used to describe an item that has been withdrawn from sale after receiving no bids or failing to sell for the minimum price. It continues to be the consignor's property. The item may be removed from the auction by the auctioneer without providing a reason.

woodcut is a relief printing technique, as well as a print made with this method. Woodcuts are created by applying a sketch to a woodblock, then carving it with sharp tools. Next, ink is applied to the block, paper is placed on top, and the carved shape is transferred through pressure. The carved area on the print is a white space, while the uncarved area is black. Woodcut gained popularity in Europe in the 14th century, initially focusing solely on outlines. It wasn't until the 15th century that shading (hatching) was added. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Albrecht Dürer was a leading master of woodcut. Woodcut was used for illustrating books, calendars, playing cards, etc. In the 17th and 18th centuries, woodcut was replaced by metal engraving. It was revitalized when introduced to European artists by P. Gauguin and E. Munch, who were inspired by Japanese woodcuts. In Poland, woodcut was popular for depicting folk themes, as done by artists like W. Skoczylas.

pioneering auction project by DESA Unicum operating since 2008. It is a selection of works representing emerging art, which allows you to familiarize yourself with the original collection defining the current trends. Auctions of Young Art aim to promote artists of the new generation—young, talented creators whose first steps in the world of the art market often take place at the auctions. The goal of DESA Unicum is to promote collecting in Poland, and events like these may be of great value for the popularization of communing with art.